Which of the following parts of the body controls the sleep-wake


1) A person with sleep apnea:

stops breathing for 10 seconds or more.

gets up and walks around while still sleeping.

experiences a state of panic.

falls asleep without warning.

2) Which of the following parts of the body controls the sleep-wake cycle?

thyroid gland

pituitary gland


prefrontal cortex

3) Natural cycles of activity that bodies must go through are called:


states of consciousness.

biological rhythms.

hypnotic states.

4) Delta waves are predominant in which stage of sleep?

N2 (R&K Stage 2)


N3 (R&K Stages 3 and 4)

N1 (R&K Stage 1)

5) Which of the following is TRUE about night terrors?

They are a common disorder.

They happen during a light stage of sleep.

They occur fairly equally in children and adults.

They are a state of panic experienced while asleep.

6) Which of the following is NOT true about psychoactive drugs?

All of them produce physical dependence in users.

Many were originally developed to help people.

Some can cause users to develop a drug tolerance.

They alter thinking, perception, memory, or some combination of these abilities.

7) Even in mild doses, marijuana negatively affects:

reaction time.



the ability to sleep.

8) Barbiturates are known as:

gateway drugs.

the minor tranquilizers.


the major tranquilizers.

9) Which of the following kills the most people in the United States every year?


heroin overdose

alcohol-related car accidents

illnesses related to smoking

10) Methamphetamine is an example of a:





11) Opium and its derivatives, morphine and heroin, duplicate the action of which of the following?





12) Withdrawal is a sign of:

psychological dependence on a drug.

physical dependence on a drug.

tolerance to a drug.



In Hilgard’s theory, the _______ remains aware of what is going on during hypnosis.

“hypnotized” part of the mind

“hidden observer” part of the mind

conscious mind

brain stem


The key to hypnosis seems to be:

a heightened state of suggestibility.

avoiding subjects who are active and alert.

a gullible subject.

using more practical subjects, as opposed to daydreamers.


Hypnosis is unable to do which of the following?

help people relax in situations that would normally cause them stress

create amnesia for whatever happens during the session

give people superhuman strength

relieve pain


Mariam takes 20 minutes daily to sit by herself and meditate. A fully meditative state is a form of:

altered consciousness.

waking consciousness.

non-REM sleep.

convergent thinking.


In the ____________, dreams are less realistic because they come not from the outside world of reality but from within people’s memories and experiences.

adaptive theory

activation-synthesis hypothesis

latent content theory

restorative theory


Calvin Hall concluded that:

dreams prove that people have wild imaginations.

there are no gender differences when it comes to dreams.

most dreams reflect the events that occur in everyday life.

everyone dreams in black and white.


The ________ of a dream is the actual dream itself.

latent content



manifest content


Nightmares are more common in children than in adults because _____.

growth hormones are released from the pituitary during non-REM sleep

children spend more of their sleep in the REM state

children suffer from lost sleep more often than adults

children have more vivid imaginations than adults


Debbie’s psychoanalyst tells her that the monster in her dream symbolizes her abusive father. He is discussing the dream’s:

latent content.

actual content.

manifest content.

spiritual context.


Niles has begun to fall asleep suddenly during the day, sometimes in inappropriate places. Niles is most likely suffering from:



not enough melatonin.

sleep apnea.


Theodora suffers from an inability to get to sleep and to stay asleep. Which of the following would help Theodora with her insomnia?

spending some time in bed relaxing, reading or watching TV until she gets sleepy

trying various sleeping pills until she finds one that doesn’t cause REM rebound

watching the clock so she knows how much sleep she is actually getting

going to bed and getting up on a regular schedule


On Sara’s walk to campus one morning, she was thinking about what a nice day it was, how many people were already on campus, and how she had to stop by the bookstore on her way to class. Sara was experiencing:

an altered state of consciousness.


a meditative state.

waking consciousness.

25) Derek was lying on the couch and had fallen asleep when all of a sudden his body jerked, and he woke up because he felt like he was falling. Derek was most likely in which stage of sleep?

N3 (R&K Stages 3 and 4)

N1 (R&K Stage 1)


N2 (R&K Stage 2)



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