Two discussion responds | Biology homework help

 For the first reply

You will respond to another classmate with a substantive comment to move the science discussion forward in minimum 100, maximum 150 words in an area you are interested in after reading the main discussion.

Again, you should provide student original writing, paraphrasing from credible sources, cite your source for this post in text in parentheses, and provide full end ref information in APA 7th Edition format.

For the second reply:

You will respond to another classmate with a substantive comment to move the science discussion forward in minimum 100, maximum 150 words in an area you are interested in after reading the main discussion.

Again, you should provide students with original writing, paraphrasing from credible sources, cite your source for this post in text, in parentheses, and provide full end ref information in APA 7th Edition format.

Discussion One

Salmonella enteridis

Salmonella enteriditis is a gram negative, flagellated rod-shapped, genus, optionally anaerobic bacteria, appertaning to the enterobacteriaceae family. Mesuring about 2 to 5 µm long by 0.5 to 1.5 µm wide and motile by peritrichous flagella. Salmonella infection commonly known as salmonellosis. Both humans and animals can be affected by this infectious bacterial disease. Salmonella is known as  one of the most common causes of foodborne illness in human, called gastroenteritis. According to the center for disease control(CDC, 2022) food that is being contaminated with salmonella looks, smells and tastes as normal, With that being said, it is almost impossible to confirm that food has salmonella just by looking at it. The salmonella bacteria can be found in a  large variety of food such as eggs, chicken, pork, beef, milk, fruits, vegetables, and even in some processed food. Not only salmonella spread to people through raw or poorly- cooked food, unwashed veggies, unpasteirized milk; the bacteria can also  be spread through animals, including domesticated pets, and contaminated water (CDC,2022). Salmonellosis usually characterized by acute onset of diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, nausea including sometimes vomiting.Typically  these symptoms occur withing 8 to 72 hours after being exposed. Salmonella infections  often mistaken to stomach flu. Most people get back to normal  within 4 to 7 days without treatment, however , people with severe diarrhea that cause dehydration  may need to be hospitalized or placed under antibiotics treatment. Salmonellosis are  spread from the intestin to the bloodstream and to other parts of the body, which may cause death if left untreated. Infants, young children, older adults and people with weak immune system including malnutrion, Sickle cell disease, cancer and HIV are more likely have severe illness from salmonella infection. Approximately 1 million cases of illness, with about 400 death  are reported each year in the United States due to salmonella infection (Cowan, M. & Smith H. 2021 p664.). Fortunately, Salmonella infection can be reduced or prevented by avoidind contact with the bacterium such as washing hands frequentely, eating well prepared and cooked food, especially eggs and poultry, washing fruits and vegetables before consuming, etc.


Cowan, M. K.& Smith H. (2021). Microbiology: A Systems Approach. New York. McGraw Hill Education

Centers for disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2022)

Discussion Two

Bordetella pertussis

In March of 2020, the whole world changed and headed towards a very strange and different setting. Corona Virus (or COVID-19) hit the world in a storm. Although this is virus that we still do not know a lot about, there are some that have been around for hundreds of years. Even today, there one that effects women, children and even dogs: Bordetella Pertussis, also known as the whooping cough. Luckily today there are vaccines against it, known as the Tdap (Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Acellular Pertussis). When I worked for an OB-GYN practice in New Jersey, women who were pregnant were strongly advised to get the Tdap vaccine around their 28th week of pregnancy (but per the CDC (2017), anywhere between 27 and 36 weeks is safe to receive the vaccine, however the sooner a expectant mom gets the shot, the better response she can get from the antibody. Also, to make sure there is a better chance of passive transfer to baby in the womb). As the world seemed to come to a stand still for a very long while in 2020 from COVID-19, it may seem that other illnesses did not seem as potent. Bordetella Pertussis is still extremely relevant. Recently in the Hindustan Times (Khan, T. 2022) it is showing us that even today this bacteria is still around and growing. In India, vaccines for adults was not standard practice. As COVID-19 soared through India and the world, the country realized how imperative vaccinations are for all ages. In early 2021, the COVID-19 vaccines were being offered to the people of India, but not to expectant mothers, since they were not permitted to part of the trail. To protect the mother and fetus as best they can, there is still the influenza and pertussis vaccines. As they learned in India that the bacteria Bordetella pertussis, can create extreme symptoms in infants 3months and younger. The infants do receive the Diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DPT) at around 1 ½ months. To ensure that even into those first few months of life, and even more so if the mother has weak anti-pertussis antibodies, it is vital to both the mother and baby is make sure she is inoculated with the Tdap. Especially since it states in the article that the immunity to Bordetella pertussis can significantly wear off with age. As the United States and the United Kingdom have a protocol of vaccines for pregnant women, India is working om implanting something similar. Unfortunately in certain areas that are not as economically stable, the standard of care is different than it would be in wealthier areas. Especially with COVID-19 having such respiratory responses, it is vital that all countries are able to vaccinate the expecting mothers with safe vaccines so they can ensure the babies health once born. Whether it be from placental transfer or through breastfeeding, moms want to keep their newborns healthy, and the pertussis vaccine is a great way to do that. Whopping cough is a horrible thing for a child to have, and with the other viruses out there that can make moms and babies more susceptible to the viruses that attack the lungs, the vaccine during pregnancy is a great source to help immunity is all countries.


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017, August 10). Tdap (pertussis) vaccine and pregnancy. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved January 18, 2023, from

Khan, T., & Sengupta, D. (2022, December 26). Influenza and whooping cough (pertussis) vaccines in pregnancy. Hindustan Times. Retrieved January 18, 2023

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