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Adolescent Development
Chapter 6: Sexuality
Problematic Sexual Outcomes in Adolescence (Part 2)

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Forcible Sexual Behavior and Sexual Harassment

Too many adolescent girls and young women report that they believe they don’t have adequate sexual rights.

These include:

The right to not have sexual intercourse when they don’t wish to do so.

The right to tell partners that they are being too rough.

The right to use any form of birth control during intercourse.


Forcible Sexual Behavior 1

Rape: forcible sexual intercourse with a person who does not give consent

Legal definitions of rape vary from state to state.

Because of the difficulties involved in reporting rape, the actual incidence is not easily determined.

Why is rape so pervasive in the American culture?

Feminist writers assert that males are socialized to be sexually aggressive, to regard females as inferior beings, and to view their own pleasure as the most important objective in any sexual encounter.


Forcible Sexual Behavior 2

Researchers have found the following characteristics common among rapists:

Aggression enhances their sense of power or masculinity.

They are generally angry at females.

They want to hurt their victims.


Forcible Sexual Behavior 3

Date/acquaintance rape: coercive sexual activity directed at someone whom the perpetrator knows

A form of rape that went unacknowledged until recent decades.

Acquaintance rape is an increasing problem in high schools and on college campuses.


Forcible Sexual Behavior 4

Factors associated with sexual victimization:

Living on campus.

Being unmarried.

Getting drunk frequently.

Having been sexually victimized on a prior occasion.

A number of colleges and universities have identified a “red zone”—a period of time early in the first year of college when women are at especially high risk of unwanted sexual experiences.



Forcible Sexual Behavior 5

Rape is a traumatic experience for victims and those closer to them.

As victims strive to get their lives back to normal, they might experience depression, fear, anxiety, substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidal thoughts for months or years.

A girl’s or woman’s recovery depends on both her coping abilities and her psychological adjustment prior to the assault.


Sexual Harassment 1

Girls and women encounter sexual harassment in many different forms—ranging from sexist remarks and covert physical contact (patting, brushing against bodies) to blatant propositions and sexual assaults.


Sexual Harassment 2

A national survey on adolescent relationships found the following percentages of adolescents who were involved in various types of relationship abuse:

Relationship abuse: 68% had experienced it; 62% had perpetrated.

Psychological abuse: 64% had been victims.

Sexual abuse: 18% reported being the victim; 12% had perpetrated.

Sexual harassment: 31% had been victims; 11% had perpetrated (13% had been victims of online sexual harassment; 4% had perpetrated).


Sexual Harassment 3

Quid pro quo sexual harassment occurs when a school employee threatens to base an educational decision (such as a grade) on a student’s submission to unwelcome sexual conduct.

Hostile environment sexual harassment occurs when students are subjected to unwelcome sexual conduct that is so severe, persistent, or pervasive that it limits the students’ ability to benefit from their education.



Chapter 5: Gender: Part 2

Adolescent Development

©McGraw-Hill Education.

© McGraw-Hill Education


Gender-Role Classification

Gender can be classified in multiple ways

Approaches taken in recent years have placed greater emphasis on flexibility and quality in gender roles

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© McGraw-Hill Education


Gender Role Classification

Androgyny: the presence of a high degree of masculine and feminine characteristics in the same individual

Bem: Androgynous women and menare more flexible and more mentally healthy than either masculine or feminine individuals

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© McGraw-Hill Education



These items are from the Bem Sex-Role Inventory. When taking the BSRI, a person is asked to indicate on a 7-point scale how well each of the 60 characteristics describes herself or himself. The scale ranges from 1 (never or almost never true) to 7 (always or almost always true). The items are scored on independent dimensions of masculinity and femininity as well as androgyny and undifferentiated classifications.

Examples of masculine items

Defends own beliefs


Willing to take risks



Examples of feminine items

Does not use harsh language


Loves children



Source: Bem, Sandra, Bem Sex Role Inventory. Consulting Psychologists Press, 1978, 1981.

©McGraw-Hill Education.

© McGraw-Hill Education



©McGraw-Hill Education.

© McGraw-Hill Education



Note: Data show the percentage of first-year U.S. college students agreeing with the statement, “The activities of married women are best confined to home and family” from 1967 through 2005.

©McGraw-Hill Education.

© McGraw-Hill Education


Context, Culture, and Gender Roles (3)

Traditional gender roles continue to dominate the cultures of many countries around the world today

Access to education for girls has improved somewhat worldwide, but girls’ education still lags behind boys’ education

Despite these gender gaps, evidence of increasing gender equality is appearing

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© McGraw-Hill Education


Androgyny and Education

Can and should androgyny be taught to students?

In general, it is easier to teach androgyny to girls than to boys and easier to teach it before the middle school grades

Despite mixed findings, advocates of androgyny programs argue that traditional sex-typing is harmful for all students and especially has prevented many girls from experiencing equal opportunity

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© McGraw-Hill Education


Traditional Masculinity and Problem Behaviors in Adolescent Boys (1)

An increasing number of gender theorists and researchers conclude that there is a negative side to traditional masculinity

William Pollack, in his book Real Boys (1999), says little has been done to change what he calls the “boy code”

Too often boys are socialized to not show their feelings and to act tough

Pollack notes that boys would benefit from being socialized to express anxieties and concerns rather than keep them bottled up, as well as to learn how to better regulate their aggression

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© McGraw-Hill Education


Traditional Masculinity and Problem Behaviors in Adolescent Boys (2)

There is also a special concern about boys who adopt a strong masculine role in adolescence, increasingly found to be associated with problem behaviors

Joseph Pleck: what defines traditional masculinity in many Western cultures includes behaviors that do not have social approval but nonetheless validate the adolescent boy’s masculinity

Premarital sex

Alcohol and drugs

Illegal delinquent activities

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© McGraw-Hill Education


Gender-Role Transcendence

Critics of androgyny stress that androgyny is less of a panacea than originally envisioned

Gender-role transcendence: the view that when an individual’s competence is at issue, it should be conceptualized on a personal basis rather than on the basis of masculinity, femininity, or androgyny

©McGraw-Hill Education.

© McGraw-Hill Education



Transgender is a broad term that refers to individuals who adopt a gender identity that differs from the one assigned to them at birth

Different from their sexual orientation which can be straight, gay, lesbian, or bisexual

Cisgender: term used to describe individuals whose gender identity and expression corresponds with the gender identity assigned at birth

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© McGraw-Hill Education


Transgender Estimates by Age

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© McGraw-Hill Education


Health Risk Behaviors or Experiences of Transgender Youth1

Transgender students are at greater risk of

Violence victimization

Substance abuse

Suicide Risk

Sexual Risk

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© McGraw-Hill Education


Health Risk Behaviors or Experiences of Transgender Youth2

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© McGraw-Hill Education











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